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Nginx

Nginx是一款轻量级的Web 服务器/反向代理服务器及电子邮件(IMAP/POP3)代理服务器,在BSD-like 协议下发行。其特点是占有内存少,并发能力强,事实上nginx的并发能力在同类型的网页服务器中表现较好,中国大陆使用nginx网站用户有:百度、京东、新浪、网易、腾讯、淘宝等。

目录结构

  • /etc/nginx/nginx.conf : 全局配置文件,用来配置 Nginx、配置端口等
  • /etc/nginx/conf.d/ : 附加配置目录,用来对 Nginx 模块和模块化配置
  • /etc/nginx/vhost/ : 虚拟主机配置目录,用来配置虚拟主机创建网站
  • /var/log/nginx/: 日志目录,包含 Nginx 错误日志以及虚拟主机访问日志和错误日志
  • /var/www/: 站点默认目录

服务管理

systemctl start nginx     # 启动 nginx
systemctl restart nginx   # 重启 nginx
systemctl stop nginx      # 停止 nginx
systemctl status nginx    # 查看 nginx 服务状态

Nginx 创建站点/虚拟主机

  1. /etc/nginx/vhost/ 目录下新建后缀为 .conf 虚拟主机配置文件,内容如下:
    server {
    listen 80;                     # listen 监听端口,默认80,保持默认即可
    server_name www.example.com;   # server_name 域名,支持多个域名。用空格间隔
    root  /var/www/example;        # root 网站根目录
    error_log /var/log/nginx/example-error.log crit;  # error_log 错误日志(可选)
    access_log  /var/log/nginx/example-access.log;    # access_log 访问日志(可选)
    index index.php index.html;                       # index 文档首页
    # PHP 支持 👇(可选)
    location ~ .*\.php$ {
        fastcgi_pass php-fpm;
        fastcgi_index index.php;
        fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        include fastcgi_params;
        try_files $uri = 404;
    }
    # PHP 支持👆
    include phpmyadmin.conf; # 站点需要支持 phpmyadmin 数据库管理请添加这条(可选)
    }
    
  2. 重启 Nginx 服务

Nginx 配置域名

  1. 虚拟主机配置目录下找到默认创建的虚拟主机配置文件(例如:example.conf)
  2. 编辑虚拟主机配置文件
  3. 找到并修改 server_name
    server_name www.example.com         # server_name 主域名/主机地址
    
  4. 重启 Nginx 服务

Nginx 配置SSL证书

  1. 上传或下载证书到 SSL 证书目录 /var/lib/ssl

  2. 在新建的虚拟主机配置文件内添加,并做对应的修改:

    server {
      listen       443 ssl;
      server_name  www.example.com;
      root  /var/www/example;
      index index.php index.html;
      ssl_certificate      /var/lib/ssl/www.example.com.pem;
      ssl_certificate_key  /var/lib/ssl/www.example.com.key;
      ssl_session_cache    shared:SSL:1m;
      ssl_session_timeout  5m;
      ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
      ssl_ciphers  HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
      ssl_prefer_server_ciphers  on;
      # PHP 支持
      location ~ .*\.php$ {
        fastcgi_pass php-fpm;
        fastcgi_index index.php;
        fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        include fastcgi_params;
        try_files $uri = 404;
      }
    }
    
    server {
      listen       443 ssl;
      server_name  www.example.com;
      root  /var/www/example;
      index index.php index.html;
      ssl_certificate      /var/lib/ssl/www.example.com.pem;
      ssl_certificate_key  /var/lib/ssl/www.example.com.key;
      ssl_session_cache    shared:SSL:1m;
      ssl_session_timeout  5m;
      ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
      ssl_ciphers  HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
      ssl_prefer_server_ciphers  on;
      # PHP 支持
      location ~ .*\.php$ {
        fastcgi_pass php-fpm;
        fastcgi_index index.php;
        fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        include fastcgi_params;
        try_files $uri = 404;
      }
      include phpmyadmin.conf; # 站点需要支持 phpmyadmin 数据库管理
    }
    
    # HTTPS 跳转
    server {
      listen 80;
      server_name www.example.com;
      rewrite ^/(.*)$   https://www.example.com/$1 permanent;
    }
    
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